Communist Party : 103 Year Of Revolution ।। Some Known & Unknown History Of Communist Party


2020 marked the centenary of the Left movement in India. An émigré communist party emerged in the course of October 1920 in Soviet Tashkent under M.N. Roy’s guidance.

An émigré Communist Party emerged in October 1920 in Tashkent. “It was the combined impact of the wartime and post-war experiences of political transition as exiles, the Peshawar and Bolshevik conspiracy cases along with militant labour movements of the early 1920s in India which produced activists who were identifiably Left in their political and social orientation.

Here we'll talk about some known & unknown history of the Communist Party. So read the complete article.

1920: M.N. Roy (centre, with black tie) with Vladimir Lenin (left) and Maxim Gorky (behind Lenin). An émigré communist party emerged in October 1920 in Soviet Tashkent under Roy’s guidance.

Formation of CPI

After the second Commintern Congress, M.N. Roy, Abani Mukherji, and others based the Communist Party of India (CPI). It became founded in 1920 in Tashkent (now the capital of Uzbekistan). M.N. Roy became the first elected Commintern chief. Workers' and peasants' events sprouted up during the USA, spreading Marxist and Communist ideas. In India inside the past due 1920s and 1930s, a chief left-front institution emerged, contributing to the radicalization of the national movement. Political independence had shifted closer to a more social and financial consciousness. 

Communist Party of India - Features

  • Many communists were imprisoned within the Kanpur Bolshevik Conspiracy Case in 1924, inclusive of S.A. Dange, Muzaffar Ahmed, Shaukat Usmani, and Nalini Gupta.
  • The CPI was officially based in 1925 at the Indian Communist Conference in Kanpur.
  • The government crackdown on communists resulted in the arrest and trial of 31 leading communists, trade unionists, and left-wing leaders in 1929; they have been tried in Meerut in the famous Meerut conspiracy case.
  • Workers' and peasants' events sprouted up throughout the united states, spreading Marxist and communist thoughts.
  • All of these communist people' and peasants' parties remained part of the countrywide motion and collaborated with the Congress.

Communist Party of India - Goals

  • The Communist Party of India declared that revolution might be used to build socialism in India.
  • In 1934, the Communist International recognized the birthday party as the Indian segment. The birthday party's stance shifted closer to radicalism.
  • The CPI had deserted nonviolent modes of political motion in favour of armed resistance to British imperialism underneath its new strategic direction.
  • The Communist Party demanded the abolition of zamindari, nationalisation of banks, tea gardens, and transport industries, as well as a slew of other radical projects.
  • In preserving with the new coverage function, it no longer simplest distanced itself from the Civil Disobedience Movement, but additionally criticised the Gandhi-Irwin Pact as a betrayal of the Indian humans.

Kanpur Bolshevik Conspiracy Case (1924)

  • The Kanpur Bolshevik conspiracy case was a contentious courtroom case that commenced in British India in 1924.
  • Following Peshawar in 1922, the British government released more conspiracy cases, one in Kanpur (1924) and one in Meerut (1929).
  • The Kanpur Conspiracy Case became also added against newcomer communists, whom the British authorities despised.
  • The government apprehended and prosecuted a few newly transformed communists named M N Roy, Muzaffar Ahamed, S A Dange, Shukat Usmani, Nalini Gupta, Singaravelu Chettiar, and Ghulam Hussain for conspiring towards the authorities.
  • However, this situation added the communists to public attention.
  • The newspapers exhaustively protected the situation, and for the primary time, the humans of India were capable of find out about the communist doctrine extensive.
  • As a end result, this situation was responsible for the advent of Communism to the Indian public.
  • In this situation, M N Roy was charged in absentia, so he changed into not arrested. Ghulam Hussain changed into pardoned after becoming a British informant. All of the others were arrested and sentenced to 4 years in jail.

Indian Communist Conference (1925)

  • The Indian Communist Conference changed into held in Kanpur in 1925 and M.N. Roy based the Communist Party of India (CPI) in December 1925.
  • The Kanpur Communist Conference changed into a assembly of India's early communist motion held in Kanpur from December 26 to 28, 1925.
  • The Communist Party of India's leadership declared the Kanpur conference to be the birthday celebration's founding occasion in 1959.
  • The founding of the Communist Party of India in 1925 become a historical result of the dialectical aggregate of countrywide and sophistication struggles, which have been deeply crystallised through the Russian revolution and worldwide occasions.
  • It turned into warmly acquired via all progressive elements of the countrywide movement. The formation of the CPI in Kanpur in 1925 turned into a herbal end result of those techniques.
  • The convention changed into held close to Congress pandal, symbolizing near cooperation with the liberty motion.
  • Kanpur convention mounted a everyday enterprise, elected a crucial govt committee and office bearers, and followed a constitution, membership form, and pink flag. CPI advanced through the years to take at the form it now has.
  • CPI dialectically blended countrywide and sophistication obligations. M. Singaravelu was elected chairman of the Kanpur conference, and S. V. Ghate and J. P. Bagerhatta were elected CPI popular secretaries.
  • From 1927 on, Ghate become the sole preferred secretary.

Meerut Conspiracy Case

  • The Meerut Conspiracy Case become a contentious courtroom case that commenced in the British Raj in March 1929 and turned into decided in 1933.
  • The British authorities become certainly involved about the Communist International's growing power.
  • It changed into additionally thoroughly satisfied that the Communist Party of India (CPI) become spreading communist and socialist ideas a number of the workers.
  • Its remaining intention, in keeping with the government, became to attain "entire paralysis and overthrow of present governments in each united states of america (including India) by a trendy strike and armed rebellion."
  • The authorities's on the spot response became to report but every other conspiracy case, the Meerut Conspiracy Case.
  • Several trade unionists, including three Englishmen, were arrested for organising an Indian railway strike.
  • A lawsuit against the British authorities resulted inside the conviction of 27 leftist change union leaders.
  • The trial drew immediate attention in England, wherein it inspired the 1932 play ‘Meerut’ through a Manchester avenue theatre group, the Red Megaphones, which highlighted the negative effects of colonisation and industrialization.


The CPI had a huge impact on Indian society and politics. From 1920 to Now , Communist Party is working and raising vocal for the common people, worldwide . Today Communist Party completed its 102 year journey and starting the 103rd proudly . 103 year Not Out . 


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